Ubuntu - Overview of TCP/IP

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TCP/IP is a suite of communications protocols that define how different types of computers talk to one another. It’s named for its foundational protocols, the Transmission Control Protocol and the Internet Protocol. The Internet Protocol provides logical addressing as data moves between hosts: it splits data into packets, which are then forwarded to machines via the network. The Transmission Control Protocol ensures that the packets in a message are reassembled in the correct order at their final destination and that any missing datagrams are re-sent until they are correctly received. Other protocols provided as part of TCP/IP include:

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
Translates between Internet and local hardware addresses (Ethernet, etc.).

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
Error-message and control protocol.

Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
Enables TCP/IP (and other protocols) to be carried across both synchronous
and asynchronous point-to-point serial links.

Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)
Translates between local hardware and Internet addresses (opposite of ARP).

Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP)
Used by sendmail to send mail via TCP/IP.

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
Performs distributed network management functions via TCP/IP.

User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
Transfers data without first making a persistent connection between two
systems the way TCP does. Sometimes called unreliable transport.

TCP/IP is covered in depth in the three-volume set Internetworking with TCP/IP
(Prentice Hall). The commands in this chapter and the next are described in more
detail in TCP/IP Network Administration and Linux Network Administrator’s
Guide, both published by O’Reilly.

In the architecture of TCP/IP protocols, data is passed down the stack (toward the
Network Access Layer) when it is sent to the network, and up the stack when it is received from the network.

Source of Information : OReilly Linux in a Nutshell 6th Edition

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